Fiano is an Italian white wine grape varietal that is grown mainly in the Campania wine region of southern Italy and on the island of Sicily. In Campania this grape is particularly regarded around Avellino where the DOCG wine of Fiano di Avellino is produced. The grape has a long history in the Campania region and is believed to have been the grape behind the ancient Roman wine Apianum. Even today, the name Apianum is permitted to appear on wine labels of the DOCG wine Fiano di Avellino.
Outside of Italy, several Australian wine producers have begun to use the grape. Production and vineyards are still small, but one place showing good results is in the McLaren Vale wine region of South Australia.

 

More recently, some winemakers in Argentina are producing Fiano in the La Rioja district north of Mendoza. Ampelographers and wine historians connect Fiano with southern Italy, and believe it has origins in ancient Roman viticulture and perhaps may have even been cultivated by the ancient Greeks before them. The small, thick-skinned berries of Fiano usually produce very little juice and, given the vines natural tendency for low yields, can make Fiano an unprofitable grape to grow.
However, in recent years, the variety has enjoyed a lift in interest as southern Italian wineries invest in modernized winemaking techniques and equipment, as well as a desire to revitalize indigenous and classical varietals.
For the Fiano di Avellino DOCG, at least 85% of the wine must be made from Fiano with Greco, Coda di Volpe and Trebbiano permitted in the blend. Grapes destined for this DOCG wine must be limited to a maximum harvest yield of 10 tonnes per hectare and fermented to a minimum alcohol level of 11.5%.
In its youth Fiano is often intensely flavoured and aromatic with, floral and honey notes that over time develop spicy and hazelnut characters. The introduction of modern winemaking techniques with an emphasis on limiting oxidation and preserving varietal freshness, have improved the overall quality of Fiano wines over recent years.